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Table of Contents in Word

Generate a TOC

To generate a TOC, Word by default looks for built-in heading styles to be applied to document headings.

Step 1: Check or apply heading styles

  1. In the document, click in the text that you want to be included in the TOC.
  2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, look in the Quick Styles gallery to see which style is selected. The styles called Heading 1, Heading 2, and so on up to Heading 9, are the ones to apply.
  • If one of these styles is already selected, and it’s the heading level you want, the document text is fine.
  • If the text doesn’t have a built-in style applied, or isn’t using the built-in heading level you want, click the desired built-in heading style, such as Heading 1, Heading2, or the like, in the Quick Styles gallery, to apply it.
Step 2: Generate the TOC
  1. Press CTRL+Home to move the cursor to the start of the document.
  2. Click the References tab, Table of Contents, and click one of the two automatic TOC styles at the top of the gallery, Automatic Table 1 or Automatic Table 2.
    The TOC gets generated at the top of the document.
Note The automatic styles provide a title for the TOC and include a tab at the top (only visible when you click within the TOC) that includes the Update Table and Table of Contents commands, for quick access.

Choose options before generating a TOC

To change things such as how many levels show in the TOC, how the TOC is formatted, which styles get picked up, and the TOC styles themselves, open the TOC dialog box and make your changes before generating the TOC or to replace the current TOC.
  1. Press CTRL+Home to move the cursor to the start of the document.
  2. Click the References tab, Table of Contents, and Insert Table of Contents, at the bottom of the TOC menu.
  3. When you’ve selected the options, click OK as needed to close the TOC dialog box.
  • If you haven’t generated the TOC before selecting options, the TOC gets created.
  • If you’ve already generated the TOC, Word asks whether you want to replace the current TOC.
  • To replace the current TOC, click Yes.
  • To insert a second TOC below the current one, click No.

Update a TOC

  1. Click in the TOC that you want to update.
  2. Do one of the following:
  • On the References tab, click Update Table.
  • If there’s a tab control at the top of the TOC, click the Update Table command on the tab.
  • Press F9.

Multitenancy explained

​Traditionally, different instances of the same software are run on different servers for different clients. The hardware is different, the software instance is different and so are the database schemas. The infrastructure could be in-house or outsourced.

In software architecture, when a single instance of software runs on a server and is used by multiple clients, it is termed as multi-tenancy. The hardware, operating system, data-storage and software application are same for all clients. But clients cannot share or access each other’s data.

There are minor differences as compared to virtualization where each customer’s application appears to run on a separate physical machine. Security is more robust in virtualization as compared to multi-tenancy.

The key advantages of multi-tenancy are:
Resource utilization
IT resources, both hardware and software, are utilized fully with multiple customers accessing the same resources.

Data aggregation
Since there is a single database schema, data is collected from a single source. This simplifies data mining and analysis. Performance tuning of the database also becomes easier for the administrator.

Application management
Release management becomes simpler since there is only single instance of the application. The upgrades done to the software or hardware are common for all customers. Administration and maintenance of the infrastructure becomes easier as there is only a single platform and hardware to maintain.

When a new hardware is added to the platform, the capacity and procession power of the whole environment increases. This makes scaling up easier for all customers.

Cost savings
Economies of scale lead to cost savings for customers since the licensing costs of underlying software, maintenance costs of hardware, etc are all shared. This is beneficial to small and medium enterprises which need IT resources but cannot afford to invest on the infrastructure.

Multi-tenancy model has some pitfalls as well as compared to traditional single-tenancy model.
- Since per tenant metadata needs to be stored and maintained, the multi-tenant applications need more efforts to maintain. The environment also becomes complex.
- In a single-tenant environment, if there is any problem only one client is impacted, whereas in a multi-tenant environment, all clients are impacted simultaneously in case of problem.
- Downtime during new releases or updates impact more than one client. Even if an update is for one customer, the downtime during release impacts all.
- There are security concerns also since competing enterprises might be sharing the same infrastructure.

The service providers must put in extra efforts to ensure business continuity, performance and address security concerns of their customers.

Extract from forum posting by Uma Avantsa, Contributing Editor, TradeBriefs

Add or Subtract dates in Excel

​Suppose you want to adjust a project's schedule date by adding two weeks to see what the new completion date will be, or you want to determine how long a single activity will take to complete in a list of project tasks. You can add or subtract a number of days to or from a date by using a simple formula, or you can use worksheet functions that are designed to work specifically with dates in Excel. 

Suppose that an account balance of yours is due on February 8, 2010. You want to transfer funds to your checking account so that those funds arrive 15 calendar days before that date. In addition, you know that your account has a 30 day billing cycle, and you want to determine when you should transfer funds for your March 2010 bill so that those funds are available 15 days before that date.
  1. In cell A1, type 2/8/10.
  2. In cell B1, type =A1-15.
  3. In cell C1, type =A1+30.
  4. In cell D1, type =C1-15.


Cells A1 and C1 show the due dates (2/08/10 and 3/10/10) for the February and March account balances, and cells B1 and D1 show the dates (1/24/10 and 2/23/10) by which you should transfer your funds for those due dates.

Run a macro by just clicking on a button

​Add a macro as a button to the Quick Access Toolbar or to a custom group

To add your macro to the Quick Access Toolbar as a button:


  1. Click the File tab, and then click Options.
  2. Click Quick Access Toolbar.
  3. Under Choose Commands from, select Macros.
  4. Find and select your macro in the list.
  5. Click Add and then click OK.
  6. To change the name of the macro that's shown on the Quick Access Toolbar, click Modify and type the name you want displayed in the Display name box.
  7. Use the Move Up and Move Down buttons (to the right of the box) to change the position of the buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar.


To add a custom group to a tab and then add your macro to that custom group as a button:


  1. Click the File tab, and then click Options.
  2. Click Customize Ribbon.
  3. In the pane on the right, select the tab on which you want to create a custom group, such as the Developer tab.
  4. Create a new group by clicking New Group.
  5. Click Rename to change the name of your custom group, and then click OK.
  6. With your new group selected, in the pane on the left, find and select your macro under Choose Commands from.
  7. Click Add to add the macro to your custom group.
  8. To change the text that's shown next to the icon, click Rename and type the text you want displayed in the Display name box.
    As an optional step, choose a new symbol for your button in the Rename dialog box.
  9. Click OK.

Cloud is a business decision, not an IT decision

Some cloud vendors are currently selling cloud and offering savings of as high as 70%. It is suggested that focusing on a headline operational cost saving figure underestimates the business transformation required as well as potentially significant setup costs that, when considered, rarely make the business case for cloud compelling.


Cloud offers a new economic and consumption model for IT and application purchases; however, what many are not highlighting is the business transformation and IT migration which has to accompany the purchase of cloud services to derive real business benefits. These can be time consuming, involve write downs of existing investments, process re-engineering, systems migration and structural changes.


Moving your IT systems to the cloud is not a simple ‘lift and shift’. It requires transformation (in technical parlance, ‘virtualisation’). This key step is often overlooked in the business case. The cost of a migration to a virtualised environment may outweigh the savings the cloud offers. Clients should look to plan and build for the cloud - not migrate large legacy systems to the cloud. The business case for the latter is seldom positive. 
Deloitte recommends that businesses thouroughly assess the relevance of the cloud to their organization and where its impact can establish the most value. This requires building a strong business case with clear milestones and tracking its benefits.
Here’s a list of things to remember about using the cloud:
1. This is not just an IT cost reduction program; it is a business transformation
2. A clear business case is needed, with clear measureable deliverables
3. Security, privacy and business governance are important, so investigate what can and cannot be accomplished within the regulations – don’t believe everything you hear
4. Using the cloud is a journey and as such needs clear planning to choose the right partners. Not all cloud providers’ offers are the same
5. The cloud opens many new and exciting strategic options. Think about how to capture these options in your analysis
6. Although this is a business transformation, both IT and the CIO are crucial to success and need to be a core part of the team
7. Be clear in communications across all aspects of the business, both internally and externally, about the business benefits and expected outcomes.
Remember that the cloud exists for a good reason: it can be a pragmatic tool that can help your business better manage its IT requirements. But to make the most of the cloud, you need to do your homework and due diligence. Following these steps can help your organisation to take advantage of the best aspects of the cloud while helping to minimise your risk.
- Pragmatic Cloud Computing, Deloitte