Connecting Technology and Business.

Table of Contents in Word

Generate a TOC

To generate a TOC, Word by default looks for built-in heading styles to be applied to document headings.

Step 1: Check or apply heading styles

  1. In the document, click in the text that you want to be included in the TOC.
  2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, look in the Quick Styles gallery to see which style is selected. The styles called Heading 1, Heading 2, and so on up to Heading 9, are the ones to apply.
  • If one of these styles is already selected, and it’s the heading level you want, the document text is fine.
  • If the text doesn’t have a built-in style applied, or isn’t using the built-in heading level you want, click the desired built-in heading style, such as Heading 1, Heading2, or the like, in the Quick Styles gallery, to apply it.
Step 2: Generate the TOC
  1. Press CTRL+Home to move the cursor to the start of the document.
  2. Click the References tab, Table of Contents, and click one of the two automatic TOC styles at the top of the gallery, Automatic Table 1 or Automatic Table 2.
    The TOC gets generated at the top of the document.
Note The automatic styles provide a title for the TOC and include a tab at the top (only visible when you click within the TOC) that includes the Update Table and Table of Contents commands, for quick access.

Choose options before generating a TOC

To change things such as how many levels show in the TOC, how the TOC is formatted, which styles get picked up, and the TOC styles themselves, open the TOC dialog box and make your changes before generating the TOC or to replace the current TOC.
  1. Press CTRL+Home to move the cursor to the start of the document.
  2. Click the References tab, Table of Contents, and Insert Table of Contents, at the bottom of the TOC menu.
  3. When you’ve selected the options, click OK as needed to close the TOC dialog box.
  • If you haven’t generated the TOC before selecting options, the TOC gets created.
  • If you’ve already generated the TOC, Word asks whether you want to replace the current TOC.
  • To replace the current TOC, click Yes.
  • To insert a second TOC below the current one, click No.

Update a TOC

  1. Click in the TOC that you want to update.
  2. Do one of the following:
  • On the References tab, click Update Table.
  • If there’s a tab control at the top of the TOC, click the Update Table command on the tab.
  • Press F9.

Multitenancy explained

​Traditionally, different instances of the same software are run on different servers for different clients. The hardware is different, the software instance is different and so are the database schemas. The infrastructure could be in-house or outsourced.

In software architecture, when a single instance of software runs on a server and is used by multiple clients, it is termed as multi-tenancy. The hardware, operating system, data-storage and software application are same for all clients. But clients cannot share or access each other’s data.

There are minor differences as compared to virtualization where each customer’s application appears to run on a separate physical machine. Security is more robust in virtualization as compared to multi-tenancy.

The key advantages of multi-tenancy are:
Resource utilization
IT resources, both hardware and software, are utilized fully with multiple customers accessing the same resources.

Data aggregation
Since there is a single database schema, data is collected from a single source. This simplifies data mining and analysis. Performance tuning of the database also becomes easier for the administrator.

Application management
Release management becomes simpler since there is only single instance of the application. The upgrades done to the software or hardware are common for all customers. Administration and maintenance of the infrastructure becomes easier as there is only a single platform and hardware to maintain.

When a new hardware is added to the platform, the capacity and procession power of the whole environment increases. This makes scaling up easier for all customers.

Cost savings
Economies of scale lead to cost savings for customers since the licensing costs of underlying software, maintenance costs of hardware, etc are all shared. This is beneficial to small and medium enterprises which need IT resources but cannot afford to invest on the infrastructure.

Multi-tenancy model has some pitfalls as well as compared to traditional single-tenancy model.
- Since per tenant metadata needs to be stored and maintained, the multi-tenant applications need more efforts to maintain. The environment also becomes complex.
- In a single-tenant environment, if there is any problem only one client is impacted, whereas in a multi-tenant environment, all clients are impacted simultaneously in case of problem.
- Downtime during new releases or updates impact more than one client. Even if an update is for one customer, the downtime during release impacts all.
- There are security concerns also since competing enterprises might be sharing the same infrastructure.

The service providers must put in extra efforts to ensure business continuity, performance and address security concerns of their customers.

Extract from forum posting by Uma Avantsa, Contributing Editor, TradeBriefs

Add or Subtract dates in Excel

​Suppose you want to adjust a project's schedule date by adding two weeks to see what the new completion date will be, or you want to determine how long a single activity will take to complete in a list of project tasks. You can add or subtract a number of days to or from a date by using a simple formula, or you can use worksheet functions that are designed to work specifically with dates in Excel. 

Suppose that an account balance of yours is due on February 8, 2010. You want to transfer funds to your checking account so that those funds arrive 15 calendar days before that date. In addition, you know that your account has a 30 day billing cycle, and you want to determine when you should transfer funds for your March 2010 bill so that those funds are available 15 days before that date.
  1. In cell A1, type 2/8/10.
  2. In cell B1, type =A1-15.
  3. In cell C1, type =A1+30.
  4. In cell D1, type =C1-15.


Cells A1 and C1 show the due dates (2/08/10 and 3/10/10) for the February and March account balances, and cells B1 and D1 show the dates (1/24/10 and 2/23/10) by which you should transfer your funds for those due dates.

Run a macro by just clicking on a button

​Add a macro as a button to the Quick Access Toolbar or to a custom group

To add your macro to the Quick Access Toolbar as a button:


  1. Click the File tab, and then click Options.
  2. Click Quick Access Toolbar.
  3. Under Choose Commands from, select Macros.
  4. Find and select your macro in the list.
  5. Click Add and then click OK.
  6. To change the name of the macro that's shown on the Quick Access Toolbar, click Modify and type the name you want displayed in the Display name box.
  7. Use the Move Up and Move Down buttons (to the right of the box) to change the position of the buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar.


To add a custom group to a tab and then add your macro to that custom group as a button:


  1. Click the File tab, and then click Options.
  2. Click Customize Ribbon.
  3. In the pane on the right, select the tab on which you want to create a custom group, such as the Developer tab.
  4. Create a new group by clicking New Group.
  5. Click Rename to change the name of your custom group, and then click OK.
  6. With your new group selected, in the pane on the left, find and select your macro under Choose Commands from.
  7. Click Add to add the macro to your custom group.
  8. To change the text that's shown next to the icon, click Rename and type the text you want displayed in the Display name box.
    As an optional step, choose a new symbol for your button in the Rename dialog box.
  9. Click OK.

Cloud is a business decision, not an IT decision

Some cloud vendors are currently selling cloud and offering savings of as high as 70%. It is suggested that focusing on a headline operational cost saving figure underestimates the business transformation required as well as potentially significant setup costs that, when considered, rarely make the business case for cloud compelling.


Cloud offers a new economic and consumption model for IT and application purchases; however, what many are not highlighting is the business transformation and IT migration which has to accompany the purchase of cloud services to derive real business benefits. These can be time consuming, involve write downs of existing investments, process re-engineering, systems migration and structural changes.


Moving your IT systems to the cloud is not a simple ‘lift and shift’. It requires transformation (in technical parlance, ‘virtualisation’). This key step is often overlooked in the business case. The cost of a migration to a virtualised environment may outweigh the savings the cloud offers. Clients should look to plan and build for the cloud - not migrate large legacy systems to the cloud. The business case for the latter is seldom positive. 
Deloitte recommends that businesses thouroughly assess the relevance of the cloud to their organization and where its impact can establish the most value. This requires building a strong business case with clear milestones and tracking its benefits.
Here’s a list of things to remember about using the cloud:
1. This is not just an IT cost reduction program; it is a business transformation
2. A clear business case is needed, with clear measureable deliverables
3. Security, privacy and business governance are important, so investigate what can and cannot be accomplished within the regulations – don’t believe everything you hear
4. Using the cloud is a journey and as such needs clear planning to choose the right partners. Not all cloud providers’ offers are the same
5. The cloud opens many new and exciting strategic options. Think about how to capture these options in your analysis
6. Although this is a business transformation, both IT and the CIO are crucial to success and need to be a core part of the team
7. Be clear in communications across all aspects of the business, both internally and externally, about the business benefits and expected outcomes.
Remember that the cloud exists for a good reason: it can be a pragmatic tool that can help your business better manage its IT requirements. But to make the most of the cloud, you need to do your homework and due diligence. Following these steps can help your organisation to take advantage of the best aspects of the cloud while helping to minimise your risk.
- Pragmatic Cloud Computing, Deloitte

Excel Macros - how to build, run and follow best practices...

Excel macro best practices 

  • It's usually a good idea to turn on the Use Relative References option because the Macro Recorder will be more likely to produce the steps that you expect. Turn on this option by clicking the Use Relative References button in the Code group on the Developer tab. Learn how to show the Developer tab (by default, it's not shown) in the "Record a macro" section, below.
  • Inspect your macro in the Visual Basic Editor after you've recorded it to see if you can improve it or at least understand how it works by looking at its instructions. Do this by selecting your macro in the Macros dialog box (in the Code group on the Developer tab, click Macros) and then clicking the Edit button.
  • Make a habit of saving your macros to the personal workbook so that you can reuse them on your computer. Do this by selecting the Personal Macro Workbook option in the Store macro in list when you record a macro.

Record a macro

First, make sure the Developer tab is visible, because that's where all the macro commands are found:
  1. Click the File tab, click Options, and then click Customize Ribbon.
  2. Under Main Tabs, make sure the Developer check box is selected.
Then, start the Macro Recorder:
  1. On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Record Macro.
  2. Optionally, you can assign your macro a shortcut key combination so that it's easy to run.
  3. Click OK to start the Macro Recorder.
  4. In your workbook, perform the actions that you want recorded, which can include typing words or numbers, clicking cells, clicking buttons, dragging cells, formatting, and more.
  5. When you're done with the actions that you want recorded, click Stop Recording.

Run your macro

  1. On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Macros.
  2. In the Macros dialog box, find your macro and click Run.
    Note If you assigned your macro a keyboard combination (for example, CTRL+SHIFT+M) when you started the macro recorder, you can use that shortcut to run the macro.

Record a macro in your personal macro workbook

By saving a macro to the personal macro workbook, you make your macro available every time you open or create an Excel workbook on your computer. It's best to make this decision when you first record your macro, because it requires a bit of work (and knowledge of the Visual Basic Editor environment) to later move a macro to the personal macro workbook.
  1. Click Record Macro and then, in the Store In list, select Personal Macro Workbook.
  2. Click OK to record your macro, and click Stop Recording when you're done.
If you have already created a macro in your current workbook and would like to copy it to your personal workbook, you can record an empty macro whose instructions you can then replace. Do the following:
  1. On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Record Macro.
  2. In the Store In list, select Personal Macro Workbook.
  3. Give the macro the same name as the macro that you've already saved to your current workbook (that is, the macro whose instructions you want to copy).
  4. Click OK to start the Macro Recorder, and then immediately stop the recording.
  5. On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Macros, select the macro in the current workbook that contains the instructions you want to copy, and then click Edit.
  6. In the Visual Basic Editor, select the entire macro, starting with "Sub" and ending with "End Sub."
  7. Click CTRL+C to copy the macro, and then close the Visual Basic Editor.
  8. Click Macros again and this time select the macro you just recorded to your personal macro workbook (in the list, it's probably preceded by PERSONAL.XLSB!).
  9. Click Edit to start the Visual Basic Editor, and select all the lines of the macro, starting with "Sub" and ending with "End Sub."
  10. Paste the macro that you previously copied over these instructions to replace them.
  11. Close the Visual Basic Editor to save your changes.
When you close Excel after you've saved a macro to your personal macro workbook, you'll be prompted to save the changes to the personal workbook. Be sure to click Yes to save those changes.

Virtualization towards a Private Cloud

​Maintain Control and Governance with Private Cloud Computing

Faster provisioning is great but not if it means compromising security or unauthorized access to resources. Many surveys on cloud computing cite security as the most significant concern hindering the adoption of cloud computing. A host-based distributed architecture enables virtual networks to be protected at the host level, leading to lower overall costs and higher quality of service.

Automated provisioning also requires control to ensure compliance with appropriate access policies. One approach is to control the consumption of resources by users before the resources are provisioned either through request/approval workflow or quotes/limits on what can be provisioned. An alternative approach is to freely allow end users to consume resources from the infrastructure but observe this consumption to generate usage reports. Those usage reports can then have cost models applied to them to generate cost reports that display the cost of the consumption.
Obtain Agility with Policy-Driven Automation
Resource management policies can improve utilization of shared infrastructure by allowing resources to be overcommitted beyond baseline reservations. Multi-cluster linked clone technology will enable identical virtual machine configurations to be provisioned rapidly and without a full duplication of the original template. Resource pooling and virtual distributed network configuration will reduce the amount of hardware needed to deliver services, and will enable intelligent policy management mechanisms like distributed resource scheduling. Software controls can enforce isolation that minimizes the risk of a user-driven or system-driven fault.
With this unique policy-driven automation in place, one will be able to essentially deliver zero-touch infrastructure, where IT is transformed into a service provider defining and delivering services rather than operationally responding to custom requests.

Downsides to Virtualization

First, increased network complexityaffects performance. Aside from merely increasing the number of network devices, virtualizationadds tiers to the switching fabric, increasing latency, power consumption and managementcomplexity.

Second, the consolidation of virtual machines on physical servers affects switching scalabilityand performance. As dual-processor servers with six-, eight- and even 10-core CPUs becomecommon, consolidation ratios will climb. Currently, a hypervisor virtual switch with a workloadof 10 to 15 VMs per system extracts a modest overhead of about 10% to 15%, but thatfigure that will undoubtedly increase when handling scores of VMs.

The third challenge is that software switching complicates management and security. Network monitoring, management, traffic reporting and security tools use standard protocols operating on physical ports, but as more traffic is switched within the hypervisor, these tools lose visibility into a significant amount of network activity. Some vendors make their monitoringand analysis software available on VMs to regain visibility, but these are proprietary solutions that typically support only one or two hypervisor vendors, and usually come with additional license costs.

Fourth, the ability to seamlessly and transparently move VMs from one physical server to another complicates management and security. Such dynamic movement of application workloads becomes a headache when keeping network policies aligned with applications.

Fifth, virtualization exacerbates demands for shared storage, due to the inherent need to decouple OS images, applications and data from the underlying server hardware.

-  Analyt i c s . Informat ionWeek. com

Switching between worksheets

Toggling between multiple worksheets in a notebook you can always use your mouse or even the keyboard shortcuts. (For example, CTRL+PageUp activates the previous sheet in your workbook, while CTRL+PageDown activates the next one.) 

But what if you aren't sure of the one you want to look at? What if you want to see a list of all the worksheets in that particular workbook? It's simple: right-click the tab navigation buttons
Tab navigation 
... and a floating list of all the worksheets in the workbook will appear, as pictured below. Just click the one you want. (This is especially useful when sheet names are long.)


The names of all my worksheets 


We know that a formula in a cell is also displayed in the formula bar of the Excel interface. How about displaying all formulae in a worksheet all at a time so that, many times, it helps editing one or more formula in various cells easily?

The secret lies in a button that is placed usually just below the Esc key on your keyboard. This "~" symbol is called "Tilde". Use this with a Ctrl key and immediately Excel displays all the formulae in the worksheet. Use this same key combination again and you will see the results of these formulae in the cells. Ctrl+ ~ toggles between formulae and result in the cells of a worksheet. Make sure to return to the results display mode or you will see some features not functioning as expected.